Remarks and Comments on the Trinidad Meeting
by Chris Starr, host of the 1999 AAS Annual Meeting in Trinidad.
(Ed. Note: Those who attended speak of experiencing a stimulating meeting, a wonderful time, and a memorable stay. We all thank Chris and his diligent aides for organizing this unique meeting in an exotic location.)
Monday 28 June. Sopping wet pouring rain all day long. Fortunately, this was a session day, not a field day. As it happened, the weather was very good to us, and the Tuesday and Thursday field days experienced almost no rain, certainly not enough to get in the way of field work.
Tuesday 29 June. Following the previous day's rain, some big puffballs appeared beside the dormitory. Hank Guarisco collected some, and he and Denny Radabaugh prepared them as an added treat at supper.
The day's field trip up the Maracas Valley and over to the north coast was pleasant and productive. Tom Gregg later told reporters "I saw everything, but I didn't see anything." The interpretation of this zen remark is left open. Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha reported that on this and a smaller field trip the previous Sunday he collected 12 species of Opiliones out of 21 recorded for Trinidad, as well as three new records.
The group led by Gustavo Hormiga stopped at a lookout over the sea, right toward the end of the trip. They were just getting ready to get back into the bus when Gus noticed a large Nephila clavipes aggregation. Then he and others found a plentiful supply of Actinopus sp. (Actinopidae), so the whole group went back to collecting specimens. It was so productive, that this group returned to the base about an hour and a half after the other three groups on the trip.
Bryan Reynolds had happened to fall into a UWI graduate student party on the weekend preceding the meeting. He was so impressed by the students' festive prowess that he got other arachnologists enthused about it. At their request, a member of the Organizing Committee put together a visit to a local popular night spot, where the party animals did their thing. Bryan Reynolds had asked me in advance whether there were any Latrodectus in Trinidad. As far as I knew, there were not, and I told him so. The day after his arrival, he led me to some concrete benches right alongside the dormitory and pointed out Latrodectus underneath them! There were great numbers of females and egg cases. There's something to be said for knowing what you're looking for. Bryan stated later they were Brown Widows, Latrodectus geometricus, and that his find caused quite a stir at the porter's booth!
The meeting was rich in hard-core visual effects. Simon Pollard brought a new BBC movie on jumping spiders, which was shown for apparently the first time in this hemisphere. Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha and Joe Warfel presented a slide show on Opiliones, after which Joe and Bryan Reynold presented one on other arachnids.
A major benefit of this meeting to the host country is added knowledge of the local arachnofauna. It is already apparent that a great many new records have been added, and it seems very likely that the collecting will have produced at least a few new species.
Several arachnologists remained for at least a few days after the meeting, in order to do field work or just be tourists. Lorenzo Prendini had a special permit to collect two specimens of Chactas Raymondhansi, a fabulous big scorpion known only from the peak area of El Tucuche in Trinidad. He succeeded in getting a mature female and mature male for use in his molecular study of scorpion phylogeny.
Anuradha Singh, a reporter at UWI, stated that the presentations for the Student Paper competition were of an excellent calibre and the presenters were a credit to their supervisors. The poster presentation was also enjoyable, as well as informative. The excellence of the photography used in the presentations was remarkable. The reporter had a wonderful time showing the conference participants around and their collective good nature and humour struck her. She was also very touched by how appreciative they were of Trinidad's culture and biology. Their enthusiasm allowed her to appreciate things that she had previously taken for granted, and she looks forward to having the participants revisit.
Field notes from the Trinidad meeting
by Bryan Reynolds
The first day I ventured out on my own in Mt. St. Benedict. I made it literally 20 feet in and found a large female Scytodes with her egg sack. A little further down the trail there was a rock face with five Theraphosids on it. One was as big as my hand! With a little coaxing she came right out of her burrow with a bad attitude. At night there were Ctenids and Amblypygids galore. One very large Ctenid was consuming a Theraphosid. Also, with a little help from Joe Warfel, we were able to coax Trapdoor spiders out for (hopefully) some great shots. One of us would tickle the edge of the trapdoor, while the other was prefocused and ready to fire off a shot when the spider appeared.
The ant mimics were amazing. I found and photographed both Clubionid and Salticid ant mimics as well as some of the ants they mimic. During the day, salticids were a challenge. A few had prey or were courting, so they were preoccupied enough for a lot of shots of various angles and magnifications. A few were also very curious about their reflection in my lens and kept jumping onto the front element. Most Salticids however, were one time grab shots that hopefully will come out. One memorable Salticid was a pair of Lyssomanes that Joe found. They sat still and allowed both Joe and I to shoot several rolls of film up. Watching their eye cones move at magnifications of 3X to 4X was great.
The leaf cutters seamed to be more active at night. The insects had every color of the rainbow. Chartreuse, bright blue and blaze orange bugs. Silver and gold scarab beetles. Bright red leaf hoppers (Joe called them LED leaf hoppers). Plant hoppers with weird protrusions. Blue mosquitoes. And don't forget the "car alarm" cicadas.
First place winner was Todd Blackledge for "A behavioral test of the effect of silk color on visibility to insects."
Second place winner was Ingi Agnarsson for "Theridiid systematics: A preliminary molecular and morphological phylogenetic analysis."
Congratulations to them both!
Dates & Deadlines
A.A.S. Research Fund 15 January, 2001 (press here for more information)
Future AAS Annual Meetings
24th Annual Meeting of the American Arachnological Society
15 - 19 July, 2000
Transylvania University and the University of Kentucky
Co-Hosts: James Wagner, Transylvania University
David Wise, University of Kentucky
Lexington is situated in the heart of the Kentucky Bluegrass, easily accessible to by car or airplane. The meeting will take place on the campus of Transylvania University, with the banquet at the Faculty Club of the University of Kentucky. Planned activities will introduce arachnologists to the culture of the Bluegrass (including worship of the Horse) as well as the fauna and landscape of the nearby Appalachian mountains. Meet new colleagues and reestablish connections with old acquaintances in the warm and relaxed atmosphere of Lexington's Southern hospitality.
The modern lecture room on the Transylvania campus is equipped for computer and video presentations. Housing will be available in dormitories on the Transy campus, in nearby bed-and-breakfasts, and in downtown hotels. Breakfasts and lunch will be available on campus. Several excellent restaurants are also located downtown within walking distance of Transy.
Saturday, July 15: Arrival and Evening Reception
Sunday, July 16: Paper* sessions;
"Old Kentucky Night" at the Kentucky Horse Park
Monday, July 17: Paper sessions;
Informal evening of bourbon tasting, slides and videos
Tuesday, July 18: Paper sessions; Banquet
Wednesday, July 19: Field Trip to Red River Gorge
*A poster session will be scheduled for the first day, with the posters to be left up for the entire meeting.
More information on the Year 2000 AAS Meeting appears on the meeting website at http://kaston.transy.edu/AAS2000.html .
Logistical details, including registration fee, lodging costs, and costs of the Old Kentucky Night, banquet and field trip, will be posted as they become available. REGISTRATION AND SUBMISSION OF ABSTRACTS WILL BE DONE THROUGH THE WEBSITE!
Forms for registration and abstract submission will be available early in 2000. Please visit the website now to learn more about next year's meeting, and to submit a brief pre-registration form to help with planning.
This year votes were cast for a President-Elect and a Director. The former replaces Fred Coyle, who moves into the President position, and the latter fills the place of H. Don Cameron, who, fortunately, remains as our Parliamentarian. Ballots for the Treasurer office also were cast.
Brent Opell is our new President-Elect, Paula Cushing is our newest Director, and Gail Stratton continues as our perennial treasurer.
Congratulations! to the new officers, Thanks! to the candidates for agreeing to run, and Well-Done! to the Nominations Committee of Don Cameron, David Wise, and Sam Marshall.
Peter N. Witt, 1918-1998
(Charles Reed has submitted this memorial to Peter Witt, giving us more insight into Dr. Witt's life. Please join me in thanking Charles for his contribution. - Ed.)
In 1948, at the time of the encounter with spiders for which he is principally known to readers of this journal, Peter Witt was an assistant in the Pharmacology Department in TÅbingen. He had lived the first part of his life on the enclosed properties that his parents' house shared with the Berlin-Grunewald villas of his maternal Mendelssohn grandparents and of his great-uncle. It was there that he began the love of gardens, music and animals that lasted all his life, and where his pride in family accomplishments matured. The Third Reich had ended all that. In 1943, he sat through the night near the burning ruins at Grunewald, guarding against looters, hearing the discord of three grand pianos, one by one, crashing through burning floors to the basement. Earlier, a fellow medical student, mindful that heavy explosives would follow the incendiary track laid across the city, had wrestled him to shelter, pulling him from his frantic efforts to quench the already-flaming roof.
Next year, at his final medical school examination, he showed his almost impulsive readiness to rise to defend, a characteristic that was to become familiar to not a few of his later colleagues. He was contradicted when he identified loss of the patellar reflexes in tabes dorsalis as the Westphal sign. Westphal, he was told, was a Jewish professor who had arrogated what was in fact a discovery of his assistants. Nettled, Witt claimed certain knowledge to the contrary. He was very familiar with the writings of Carl Westphal, a nineteenth-century neurologist and neuroanatomist. He identified the building in which they were sitting as the site of the discovery of the Westphal sign, and Westphal as his great-grandfather. Given the institutional anti-Semitism of the time, it might have been a brash outburst of what he considered an inherited quick temper, but his examiners let the confrontation pass. Perhaps they anticipated the change that seemed on the horizon. In any case they confronted the same perplexity that officialdom had in classifying him. As he wrote in an account of those times: "I did not fit into any of the German legal definitions of "Mischling" (hybrid) _ in first second or third degree, nor was I 'Aryan' (non-Jewish) _ I felt strongly that I belonged to both sides._" He had been required by this time to spend almost eight years in the labor and military services, although through much of the latter portion he was on leave at medical school in Graz and Berlin.
On graduation, he burned his uniform and joined a physician couple who had turned a suburban Wannsee villa into a hospital for treating victims of the bombing raids. Deserters were being summarily executed in the streets. Frequently, at a warning from his colleagues, he had to conceal himself. One day he awoke from an exhausted sleep between operations to find Russian soldiers entering the hospital. His impulsive gesture of welcome startled them in a way that, in the eyes of a coworker, looked for a moment dangerous. He remembered as one of the high points of his life these months of danger, exhaustion and service to people in desperate need. It was moreover a significant embarkation on the course he had chosen at an early age, to become, like Westphal, a practicing physician, teacher, and researcher in biology.
In time, the work at Wannsee became less urgent than it had been. He decided that he could join his mother and family in southern Germany, but it was not a simple matter. Life in Russian-occupied Berlin was unpredictable and sometimes threatening. Travel was restricted, and promised soon to be prohibited. His second attempt to escape and an adventurous journey brought him in late 1945 to the SchwÑbische Alp, where since 1944 his mother had sheltered more than thirty family members and friends who had sought refuge in her virtually self-sufficient farm. Fresh from chaos and ruin, he was startled to find there an unreal tranquility in which he was expected to dress for dinner. "After all I had gone through, I was not prepared for the normalcy of life on the farm. I had watched the destruction of Berlin. I had dealt with people who were sick, hungry, without warm clothes and almost without hope of ever living normally again."
In a matter of months he was at TÅbingen to study and write his medical doctoral thesis on chemically-induced blood abnormalities. In his later career in Switzerland and the United States he continued to investigate drugs affecting the properties of the heart muscle and the permeability of cell walls, but it was at TÅbingen that he became chiefly interested in behavioral effects of drugs. Behavior had always been a strong interest, but now means for objective study seemed at hand. After what he always described as his accidental discovery of the effects of drugs on the geometry of the orb web, a major portion of his subsequent written work (over 100 papers and 3 books) was concerned with the behavior and biology of spiders.
But before all these events he was involved in an unusual request from a branch of American military intelligence in Germany. He had just finished a series of lectures on psychotropic and addictive drugs, and a question was turned over to him: Had Adolph Hitler been over-drugged and addicted by the time of his death? At the military compound in Frankfort, he was provided with the papers and diaries of visitors to the Berlin bunker, and the records of Hitler's Hitler's long-time personal physician Theodor Morell. Some of the observers of the last weeks were available to be interviewed.
He concluded that at least one hundred drugs were administered to Hitler each day. Morell ultimately found it convenient and expeditious to deliver injections (tissue extracts, exotic suspensions and morphine) through the sleeve of Hitler's jacket.
The inquiry was terminated abruptly, without explanation. His report and notes, if they exist at all, remain in an unknown archive. His own papers contain only a letter from one of his interviewees who, in daring flights into and out of Berlin, visited the bunker in the last week of Hitler's life. It was from the test-pilot Hanna Reitsch in a script as flamboyant as her life, writing of her disappointment that their interviews had suddenly ended.
He had inherited Swiss citizenship through his father, and in 1949 he joined the Pharmacology Department in Bern. During a year at Harvard on a Rockefeller Fellowship, he crossed the country describing his work. He developed a delight in lecturing and plainly captured his audiences. When he returned to Switzerland invitations to American universities followed him, and in 1956 he decided to accept one of them, in the Pharmacology Department in what was then the Upstate Medical Center of the State University of New York at Syracuse. As an effective teacher he had attained the third goal in his emulation of Westphal.
The decade in Syracuse brought his work to full stride. The possibility of using web geometry to identify biochemical abnormalities in the body fluids of actively psychotic people had become less likely than it had seemed at first, and his attention was drawn instead to the intricate events of web-building and to their physiological and environmental determinants. Computers were transforming research; after some initial skepticism, he found them at least useful in systematizing web measurement and description.
An episode at this time provides another glimpse of his value as friend and colleague. Linus Pauling was scheduled to speak at Syracuse University. Pauling had been actively voicing his opposition to atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. When he declined a university request to restrict the scope of his remarks, he was invited by the SUNY medical school to speak at its campus instead. Later the same day, a state senator expressed his passionate determination to discover who had been responsible for having the medical school's platforms opened to what the senator considered a Communist cause. Two young members of the SUNY faculty, who had initiated the invitation, were eager to challenge the characterization and confront the controversy that seemed to be brewing. Peter Witt was foremost among those who were unwilling to have them do so alone, especially since some nervousness was apparent in their own institution. He and a few other faculty colleagues insisted on adding their names to a letter celebrating the invitation, and as it turned out, ending the matter. It was a gesture he need not have made, perhaps not an impulse as hazardous as the episode with his examiners in Berlin, but of a similar nature.
His last professional post might have been a culmination of his ideal course of life. Westphal, in addition to his distinguished contributions to neurology and neuroanatomy, has been credited with introducing rational and non-censorious treatment to psychiatric hospitalization in Germany. Peter Witt was attracted to North Carolina in 1966, challenged by the new position of Director of Research in the Department of Mental Health, and by a program that promised to invigorate research in psychiatric treatment and in the underlying medical and behavioral sciences.
His efforts in the research section led to the founding of seven independent laboratories, each directed by a prominent scientist investigating basic mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction. There he continued his own research, stimulating already-established colleagues and recruiting young assistants who on the basis of his example later found careers as scientists. And there he contributed his humane understanding to the plight of people hospitalized for psychiatric treatment, although he came to a conclusion contrary to what had become the prevailing argument that psychiatric hospitals were essentially prisons and should be replaced by treatment centers in the community. For a notably generous man, it was one of the few occasions when he failed to grant that this view shared his objective of rational and sympathetic care. Neither side welcomed the outcome: The hospitals were essentially emptied, but without providing the discharged patients with the proposed alternative treatment centers and living arrangements.
At his retirement in 1980, his was able to give his full attention to his farm, particularly to plants and the collection and breeding of animals. For over 30 years, he had risen in the very early morning to milk and walk his Nubian goats. Mouflon, rheas and guanacos roamed a large wooded and fenced area. The first of the guanacos bounded over a pen's enclosure and disappeared shortly after it was brought to the farm. For the next two weeks, reports of sightings came from miles around as residents of the countryside participated vicariously in the search, and actively in the triumphant return, when a cavalcade of cars followed the recovered animal and its captor up the half-mile dirt road to the house. Thereafter, when an exotic animal stranger appeared in the Knightdale countryside, it was suspected, probably correctly, to be an escapee from the Witt menagerie.
The herd of goats was expanded to supply milk for a small cheese-making business. He took especial pleasure in the fact that he executed all of the processes from selection and breeding of the animals to the marketing of their produce. The scientific breeder and processor was also the empirical businessman: He had guests at the wedding of one of his daughters rate the taste and other qualities of a number of different cheeses that he had prepared for the day. The vote determined the one cheese that he would thereafter produce and sell.
His family's love for the farm, its woods and lake, never lessened, but his strength inevitably did. A part of the farm was given away in friendship, and the rest sold. Until and even well into his last illness, time-present retained its interest and delights. One of the principal pleasures was his cello and music with his wife Inge and friends. He enjoyed characterizing and mildly ridiculing his past as one in which everyday employments were unfamiliar, almost repugnant, recalled that his mother changed a diaper for the first time when she was 61, that as a 17-year-old schoolboy he was baffled by instructions to make his bed, that he ate in a kitchen for the first time in his forties when a colleague invited him home for lunch. Though in fact he had worked in gardens since childhood, had learned shoemaking at school, and had handled horses and other animals all his life, he liked to characterize himself as a novice in a New World where he became accustomed to working with his own hands, building his own brick walls and fashioning objects like goat-milking stands out of wood. Although not Panglossian, he celebrated things-as-they-are, resembling in this way his mother and grandmother, supervisors of grand gatherings and large properties, who each confessed at separate times late in their lives that the small apartments in which they found themselves were the places for which they had always yearned.
Peter Witt died in Raleigh in September 1998, one month short of his 80th birthday, in a beautiful house that he too came to think of as one for which he had always yearned.
A little over a year earlier, the curator of European paintings at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art was pleased to learn of the existence of what the newspaper called "a retired doctor named Peter Witt", who was able to confirm the legitimacy of the Museum's possession of van Gogh's "Wheat Field with Cypress". It had hung with other Impressionist works in his grandparents' house and had been one of several paintings that were in his possession when he crossed from Germany to Switzerland in 1949: "I knew every brush-stroke." The curator asked if he was "bitter" to learn that the Museum had paid a great price for the painting, and invited him to come to New York for lunch.
Had the lunch occurred, the curator would certainly have discovered that the retired doctor had given up the painting with regret, but not for its monetary value, and that he was a far from bitter man - and a great deal more.
The impetus for this memorial came originally from Dr. Ronald Oppenheim of Wake Forest. -Charles Reed
A.A.S. Research Fund
The deadline date for the AAS Research Fund has been changed to 15 January, 2001. For qualifications and instructions on proposal format and submission please see the Journal of Arachnology Vol. 27 (2).
Vince Roth Memorial Research Fund
A research fund has been established to honor Vince Roth and to provide funds for work in arachnid systematics.
Name of the fund: Vincent Roth Memorial Fund for Arachnid Systematics
Qualifications: The fund supports research in arachnid systematics, including laboratory and field research, travel for fieldwork and museum study, and publication costs. The Fund is administered by the California Academy of Sciences. We hope to soon make awards from this fund, however, in the meantime, we welcome donations.
Contributions should be made out to "The California Academy of Sciences" with a note that the check is for the Vincent Roth Memorial Fund for Arachnid Systematics.
Donations may be sent at any time to:
Ms Julie Parinas
Dept. of Entomology
California Academy of Sciences
Golden Gate Park
San Francisco, CA 94118
Report from the Ohio Spider Web
by Rich Bradley
The state of Ohio is rich in Arachnologists. In an effort to exploit this richness Ann Rypstra organized the "Ohio Spider Web" and held the first meeting in April of 1997. The second meeting of this group was organized by Rich Bradley and held at the Ohio State University, Marion on 7 August 1999. Despite a number of late cancellations; 19 arachnologists met and listened to 12 papers. The emphasis at the Ohio Web meetings is on informal exchange of research ideas. Nine of the 12 papers were presented by undergraduate and graduate students. Following the paper sessions an afternoon BBQ was held at the shelter house of the OSU Marion's reconstructed tallgrass prairie. Participants enjoyed socializing, walks through the prairie trails, and discussions of spider research.
Papers presented (in alphabetical order):
Rob Balfour: Intraguild predation among wolf spiders.
Todd Blackledge: A behavioral test of the effect of silk color on visibility to insects.
Rich Bradley: Unusual foraging behavior in Oecobius annulipes (Oecobiidae).
Mike Brueseke: Patterns of leg loss in Pardosa milvina in the field.
Anita Linder Development and leg spination patterns in Phidippus audax (Araneae: Salticidae).
Amanda Musser: Scavenging as a means of survival in Hogna helluo (Araneae: Lycosidae) and Agelenopsis pennsylvanica (Araneae: Agelenidae).
Marianne Robertson & Mike Vickers: Alternative feeding behavior in the jumping spider, Phidippus audax (Araneae: Salticidae).
Kevin Skerl: Preliminary spider inventory and research opportunities in Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.
Jennifer Steed: Handedness in the Chinese Mantid Tenodera aridifolio sinensis (Mantodea:Mantidae).
Robin Taylor: Nectivory in spiders.
Sean Walker: Ecological test of differential mortality and mobility of the sexes and its relationship to sexual dimorphism in wolf spiders.
Christina Wieg: Effect of prior mating on courtship and mating behaviors in Pardosa milvina.
Paul Selden Writes:
The Proceedings of the 17th European Colloquium of Arachnology is available at the electronic addresses below. ( Edinburgh 1997 ISBN 0 9500093 2 6 ).
For contents see:
and for ordering see:
Web site: http://quercus.ge.man.ac.uk
Dr. Paul A. Selden; Dept. of Earth Sciences; Univ. of Manchester; Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Phone: (44) 161 275 3296 /1625 582758; Fax: (44) 161 275 3947 /1625 582758
A.A.S. Graduate Sponsor List
It is time to update the A.A.S. Graduate sponsor list! ( last version 1995 ). Those already listed will be contacted for their updated information, but we constantly seek new listings. Once compiled, the list will be maintained on the upcoming A.A.S. website and available over the electron stream.
The Graduate Sponsor List is not meant to be exhaustive, but listings should contain enough information to permit easy identification of interests. If you are interested in being listed, reply via e-mail (text only please), including the information outlined below to Alan Cady (email@example.com); He is joining Brent Opell (firstname.lastname@example.org) to try and compile the List by Spring 2000.
Name; Address; e-mail; Phone Number; Degrees Granted by Department; Departmental Home Page; Faculty Member Home Page; Faculty Research Interests and Sponsored Areas of Student Research; Citations of up to Five Recent Papers
This list is very important to prospective arachnological graduate students. ( There are at least 4 requests per month.) Completion will be announced in American Arachnology and via e-mail. Thanks in advance to all contributors.
The Second International Symposium on the Mechanics of Plants, Animals and Their Environments will focus on "Sensors and Sensing in the Natural and Fabricated Worlds" (optical, chemical, thermal and mechanical sensors) with the idea of bringing biologists, engineers, physical scientists and mathematicians together on the topic of natural and artificial sensors.
All information concerning this symposium may be found at http://www.engfnd.org/0ab.html
Joseph A.C. Humphrey; Dean and Professor; College of Engineering; Bucknell University; Lewisburg, PA 17837
(p) 570-577-3711; (f) 570-577-3579; E-mail: email@example.com;
will be held 5-9 August 2000 in Atlanta, GA, co-hosted by Morehouse College and ZooAtlanta. Along with contributed talks and posters, the meetings will include special symposia on 'Dispersal Behavior' and invited papers on 'Comparisons between Primates and Cetaceans'. Plenary speakers include Chris Boake, Hugh Drummond, & Dee Boersma. For further information see http://www.animalbehavior.org/ABS/Program/
Journal Of Arachnology Electronic Index
An electronic index now exists for the Journal of Arachnology from 1983 - 1997. Many people have worked to produce this valuable resource.
Note that the main search keywords are:
Scorpion, Spider, Harvestman, Mite
Any word or taxon that is in a title may be found with a search of the Index.
The address is:
Thanks to Bob Suter for the electronic implementation!!
(Dept. of Biology ,Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604-0334 firstname.lastname@example.org
Future AAS Website
(webmaster's note: If you can read this, you already know this!)
An A.A.S. website is in the works! Ken Prestwich has agreed to host it, and construction is underway. You will have access to various A.A.S. information such as the Constitution & By-Laws, links to the Annual Meeting website, the A.A.S. E-mail Directory, membership information, and the latest issue of American Arachnology. You will be notified when the website is up-and-running.
AMERICAN ARACHNOLOGY is the official newsletter of the American Arachnological Society, and is distributed biannually to members of the Society.
Items for the Newsletter should be sent to the Editor:
Alan B. Cady
4200 E. Univ. Blvd.
Middletown, Ohio, 45042, USA
phone: 513/727-3258, FAX: 513/727-3450
Deadline for receipt of material for the Spring issue (Vol. 61) is 15 March, 2000.
All correspondence concerning changes of address and information on membership in the American Arachnological Society should be addressed to the Membership Secretary, Norman I. Platnick.